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Appendix A Mathematical concepts

The purpose of this Appendix is to give a brief description of some of the mathematical concepts mentioned in this document. For a more thorough treatment of modular arithmetic and basic number theory, consider any undergraduate textbook in elementary algebra. For more information about groups, rings, and fields, we recommend [Fra98]. For more details on analysis and the theory of limits, consult any undergraduate textbook in analysis. A good introduction to complexity theory is given in [GJ79].