## Section Index

- 1.1 What is RSA Laboratories' Frequently Asked Questions About Today's Cryptography?
- 1.2 What is cryptography?
- 1.3 What are some of the more popular techniques in cryptography?
- 1.4 How is cryptography applied?
- 1.5 What are cryptography standards?
- 1.6 What is the role of the United States government in cryptography?
- 1.7 Why is cryptography important?

- 2.1 Cryptographic Tools
- 2.1.1 What is public-key cryptography?
- 2.1.2 What is secret-key cryptography?
- 2.1.3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of public-key cryptography compared with secret-key cryptography?
- 2.1.4 What is a block cipher?
- 2.1.5 What is a stream cipher?
- 2.1.5.1 What is a Linear Feedback Shift Register?

- 2.1.6 What is a hash function?
- 2.1.7 What are Message Authentication Codes?
- 2.1.8 What are interactive proofs and zero-knowledge proofs?
- 2.1.9 What are secret sharing schemes?

- 2.2 Simple Applications of Cryptography
- 2.3 Hard Problems
- 2.3.1 What is a hard problem?
- 2.3.2 What is a one-way function?
- 2.3.3 What is the factoring problem?
- 2.3.4 What are the best factoring methods in use today?
- 2.3.5 What improvements are likely in factoring capability?
- 2.3.6 What is the RSA Factoring Challenge?
- 2.3.7 What is the discrete logarithm problem?
- 2.3.8 What are the best discrete logarithm methods in use today?
- 2.3.9 What are the prospects for a theoretical breakthrough in the discrete logarithm problem?
- 2.3.10 What are elliptic curves?
- 2.3.11 What are lattice-based cryptosystems?
- 2.3.12 What are some other hard problems?

- 2.4 Cryptanalysis
- 2.4.1 What is cryptanalysis?
- 2.4.2 What are some of the basic types of cryptanalytic attack?
- 2.4.3 What is exhaustive key search?
- 2.4.4 What is the RSA Secret Key Challenge?
- 2.4.5 What are the most important attacks on symmetric block ciphers?
- 2.4.6 What are some techniques against hash functions?
- 2.4.7 What are the most important attacks on stream ciphers?
- 2.4.8 What are the most important attacks on MACs?
- 2.4.9 At what point does an attack become practical?

- 2.5 Supporting Tools in Cryptography

- 3.1 RSA
- 3.1.1 What is the RSA cryptosystem?
- 3.1.2 How fast is the RSA algorithm?
- 3.1.3 What would it take to break the RSA cryptosystem?
- 3.1.4 What are strong primes and are they necessary for the RSA system?
- 3.1.5 How large a key should be used in the RSA cryptosystem?
- 3.1.6 Could users of the RSA system run out of distinct primes?
- 3.1.7 How is the RSA algorithm used for privacy in practice?
- 3.1.8 How is the RSA algorithm used for authentication and digital signatures in practice?
- 3.1.9 Is the RSA cryptosystem currently in use?
- 3.1.10 Is the RSA system an official standard today?
- 3.1.11 Is the RSA system a de facto standard?

- 3.2 DES
- 3.3 AES
- 3.4 DSA
- 3.5 Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems
- 3.6 Other Cryptographic Techniques
- 3.6.1 What is Diffie-Hellman?
- 3.6.2 What is RC2?
- 3.6.3 What is RC4?
- 3.6.4 What are RC5 and RC6?
- 3.6.5 What are SHA and SHA-1?
- 3.6.6 What are MD2, MD4, and MD5?
- 3.6.7 What are some other block ciphers?
- 3.6.8 What are some other public-key cryptosystems?
- 3.6.9 What are some other signature schemes?
- 3.6.10 What are some other stream ciphers?
- 3.6.11 What other hash functions are there?
- 3.6.12 What are some secret sharing schemes?

**4. Applications of Cryptography**

- 4.1 Key Management
- 4.1.1 What is key management
- 4.1.2 General
- 4.1.3 Public-Key Issues
- 4.1.3.1 What is a PKI?
- 4.1.3.2 Who needs a key pair?
- 4.1.3.3 How does one get a key pair?
- 4.1.3.4 Should a key pair be shared among users?
- 4.1.3.5 What happens when a key expires?
- 4.1.3.6 What happens if my key is lost?
- 4.1.3.7 What happens if my private key is compromised?
- 4.1.3.8 How should I store my private key?
- 4.1.3.9 How do I find someone else's public key?
- 4.1.3.10 What are certificates?
- 4.1.3.11 How are certificates used?
- 4.1.3.12 Who issues certificates and how?
- 4.1.3.13 How do certifying authorities store their private keys?
- 4.1.3.14 How are certifying authorities susceptible to attack?
- 4.1.3.15 What if a certifying authority's key is lost or compromised?
- 4.1.3.16 What are Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)?

- 4.2 Electronic Commerce

**5. Cryptography in the Real World**

- 5.1 Security on the Internet
- 5.2 Development Security Products
- 5.3 Cryptography Standards

**6. Laws Concerning Cryptography**

- 6.1 LEGAL DISCLAIMER
- 6.2 Government Involvement
- 6.3 Patents on Cryptography
- 6.4 United States Cryptography Export / Import Laws
- 6.5 Cryptography Export / Import Laws in Other Countries

- 7.1 What is probabilistic encryption?
- 7.2 What are special signature schemes?
- 7.3 What is a blind signature scheme?
- 7.4 What is a designated confirmer signature?
- 7.5 What is a fail-stop signature scheme?
- 7.6 What is a group signature?
- 7.7 What is a one-time signature scheme?
- 7.8 What is an undeniable signature scheme?
- 7.9 What are on-line/off-line signatures?
- 7.10 What is OAEP?
- 7.11 What is digital timestamping?
- 7.12 What is key recovery?
- 7.13 What are LEAFs?
- 7.14 What is PSS/PSS-R?
- 7.15 What are covert channels?
- 7.16 What are proactive security techniques?
- 7.17 What is quantum computing?
- 7.18 What is quantum cryptography?
- 7.19 What is DNA computing?
- 7.20 What are biometric techniques?
- 7.21 What is tamper-resistant hardware?
- 7.22 How are hardware devices made tamper-resistant?

- 8.1 Where can I learn more about cryptography?
- 8.2 Where can I learn more about recent advances in cryptography?
- 8.3 Where can I learn more about electronic commerce?
- 8.4 Where can I learn more about cryptography standards?
- 8.5 Where can I learn more about laws concerning cryptography?